Land use change is a main driver of biodiversity erosion, especially in agricultural landscapes. Incentive-based land-use policies aim at influence land-use pattern, and are usually evaluated with habitat suitability scores, without accounting explicitly for the ecology of the studied population. In this paper, we propose a methodology to define and evaluate agricultural land-use policies with respect to their ecological outcomes directly. We use an ecological-economic model to link the regional abundance of a bird species to the economic context. Policies based on such ecological economics approaches appear to be more efficient than that based on landscape evaluation, from both economic and ecological viewpoints.