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Clément Bonnet

Maître de conférences
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  • Axe de recherche

      Développement Durable, Environnement et Energie

  • Thème(s)
    • Politiques publiques
    • Energies renouvelables

2018-45 "The nexus between climate negotiations and low-carbon innovation: a geopolitics of renewable energy patents"

Clément Bonnet, Samuel Carcanague, Emmanuel Hache, Gondia Sokhna Seck, Marine Simoën

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Résumé
La propriété intellectuelle est une question centrale dans les négociations sur le changement climatique. D'une part, elle façonne et encourage l'innovation dans les technologies à faible émission de carbone. D'autre part, elle réduit l'accès à ces technologies en donnant aux titulaires de brevets un pouvoir de marché. Nous analysons les interactions entre les négociations sur le climat et l'acquisition de brevets sur les technologies des énergies renouvelables. Tout d'abord, nous rappelons la nature géopolitique de la propriété intellectuelle et expliquons comment elle est modifiée par les particularités de l'innovation bas carbone. La deuxième partie de cet article est consacrée à un inventaire de la production d'inventions dans les technologies des énergies renouvelables (TER). En particulier, nous nous concentrons sur les avantages technologiques relatifs des pays et sur la valeur des inventions brevetées. Des changements majeurs sont observés dans la répartition géographique de l'innovation faible en carbone au cours des années 2000 et ils préfigurent une réorganisation des équilibres géopolitiques de l'innovation dans les énergies renouvelables.
Classification-JEL
Q42, Q55, O31, O38
Mot(s) clé(s)
Données de brevets, transition énergétique, technologies des énergies renouvelables, innovation, relations internationales
Fichier

2016-37 "Measuring Knowledge with Patent Data: an Application to Low Carbon Energy Technologies"

Clément Bonnet

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Résumé
We estimate a latent factor model (LFM) to compute an index that measures the quality of an extensive data set of inventions related to Low Carbon Energy Technologies (LCETs) and patented by seven countries during 1980-2010. We use the quality index to compute the stock of knowledge accumulated in the fifteen analyzed LCETs. We investigate the composition of the stock of knowledge and find that important substitutions between technologies have taken place: technologies such as solar thermal and nuclear have been progressively replaced by wind power, solar photovoltaic and to a less extent by few other technologies. This substitution effect can be decomposed into quantity (the number of inventions) and quality (the quality of inventions). Investigating the latter, the quality of nuclear-related inventions has decreased whereas it has increased for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind power and energy storage inventions. Few newer technologies, i.e. hydrogen and sea energy, also show signs of an increase of their average quality of inventions over the last years of the data set. We go further and investigate the inventions distribution in terms of quality and conclude that the potential for signifcant inventions related to nuclear technology has decreased over time whereas higher levels of quality have been reached in newer technological areas. A cross-country comparison is conducted to assess the innovation performance of the seven countries covered by our study. We conclude that technology policies are less efficient when demand-pull and supply-push approaches are not coupled.
Classification-JEL
C30 C11 Q40 Q55
Mot(s) clé(s)
patent data; latent factor model; energy technologies; carbon.
Fichier

2016-34 "Revisiting the optimal patent policy tradeoff for environmental technologies"

Clément Bonnet

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Résumé
The invention and the diffusion of environmental process of production and consumption goods are impeded by two market failures: the first on environment and the second on knowledge. The question arises whether the instruments aiming at correcting these market failures should be jointly designed or not. We investigate this question for a major instrument of support to innovation: the patent system. We demonstrate that a patent system and a discriminating environmental taxation that are jointly defined provide for a greater efficiency. We conclude that the two externalities interact with each other through the patent system.
Classification-JEL
D62, D83, H23.
Mot(s) clé(s)
environmental innovation, double externality, patent policy.
Fichier

2015-18 "Market pull instruments and the development of wind power in Europe: a counterfactual analysis"

Marc Baudry, Clément Bonnet

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Résumé
Renewable energy technologies are called to play a crucial role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Since most of these technologies are immature, public policies provide for two types of support: technology push and market pull. The latter aims at creating demand for new technologies and at stimulating their diffusion. Nevertheless, due to the complex self-sustained dynamics of diffusion it is hard to determine whether newly installed capacities are imputable to the impulse effect of instruments at the beginning of the diffusion process or to the current support. The paper addresses this problem. A micro-founded model of technology diffusion is built to estimate the impact of the yearly average Return-on-Investment (RoI) on the yearly count of commissioned wind farms in six European countries over the last decade. A counter-factual analysis is carried out to assess the impact of policy instruments on the RoI and, indirectly, on diffusion.
Classification-JEL
O33, Q42, Q55, H23, C61.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Renewable energy; technology diffusion; wind power; market pull; technology push.
Fichier
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