Photo Alzbeta Mangarella

Alzbeta Mangarella

Jeunes docteurs et ATER
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  • Axe de recherche

      Développement Durable, Environnement et Energie

  • Thème(s)
    • Economie du travail
    • Politiques sociales
    • Conciliation travail/famille
    • Europe centrale

2017-6 "Workers or mothers? Czech welfare and gender role preferences in transition"

Alzbeta Mangarella

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Résumé
Two decades after the fall of state socialism, the Czech Republic records the widest employment gap between women with and without pre-school children among OECD countries: 41 pp. Several substantial parental leave reforms took place during the first stage of the transition (1995) and after the EU accession (2008). The responses by the targeted population, i.e. take-up rates and duration of work interruptions, do not fully mimic predictable effects drawn by financial incentives. Why is that? Using the European Values Study and the Generations and Gender Programme panel data, I show that quite counter-intuitively, in the context of post-socialist public policy adjustments, preference for long leaves does not stem from lower preference for welfare state institutions, but from a purely intra-household value change in favour of higher task specialization between men and women. Indeed, unlike most European countries and even other post-communist countries, we observe a significant turn towards specialized couple preferences - among both women and men, both parents and non-parents, and both the higher and lower educated.
Classification-JEL
J16, Z10, P52.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Family policy, Gender roles, Culture, Central and Eastern European transition.
Fichier

2016-30 "Mind the employment gap: an impact evaluation of the Czech “multi-speed” parental benefit reform"

Alzbeta Mangarella

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Résumé
Parental leave is a key policy tool for addressing work-life reconciliation issues inherent to parenthood, including maternal employment and its continuity. The 2004 Czech accession to the EU shed light on the scope of the employment gap between women with and without children at pre-school age, highest among all the OECD countries (41 pp). This is due to very long universal paid parental leave: 4 years per child. In order to tackle this gap and to conform to the EU trend, a major reform was designed in 2008, and this paper investigates its effects on mothers’ participation and employment. I use the Labour Force Survey to assess the effect of this reform on maternal employment and activity levels, thanks to a difference-in-differences identification strategy. The reform provided an extensive change in financial incentives in favour of shorter leaves, and I show that effects on return-to-work timing are large and significant. However, if mothers do respond to the incentive by advancing the timing of the return to work by one year, the eligibility restrictions as well as the public childcare shortage narrow - de facto - the scope of the effect, which merely compensates for the massive opposite trend induced in the 1990s.
Classification-JEL
J16, J18, P30.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Policy Evaluation, Female Labour Force Participation, Parental Leave, European Social Integration
Fichier

2014-50 "Female Labour Supply in the Czech Transition: Effects of the Work-Life Conciliation Policies"

Alzbeta Mangarella

Voir Télécharger le document de travail (via EconPapers)

Résumé
Czech conciliation policies, i.e. social, family and employment policies affecting households’ fertility and employment choices, have gone through dramatic changes since the 1989 transition to market economy. After a brief presentation of conciliation policies and practices before and after the transition, we focus on the 1995 Czech Parental Benefit reform and we evaluate its impact on mothers’ labour supply. The payment of parental benefits was extended to 4 years instead of 3 without an equivalent extension of the job protected parental leave, leaving to mothers the choice of either guaranteed employment or additional twelve months of benefits. We use difference in-differences strategy of identification to assess the net effect of this reform on mother’s labour market participation. We find a sizeable and negative impact on mothers’ probability of return to work at the end of the parental leave.
Classification-JEL
J13, J16, J18, P30.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Female Labour Supply, Parental Leave and Benefit, Policy Evaluation.
Fichier
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