Chargé(e) de recherches

Photo Denis Carré
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  • Phone professional


  • Office in Paris Nanterre


  • Research group

      Transitions, Environnement, Énergie, Institutions, Territoires

  • Theme(s)
    • Economie géographique et performances des territoires
    • Dynamique des entreprises, pme, réseaux d'entreprises
    • Politique économique locale, innovation, technologie
    • Evaluation, prospective, ile-de-france

Regional dynamics and start-ups: Evidence from French departments in 2011

Denis Carré, Nadine Levratto

This paper seeks to determine the exact role played by regional dynamics in the creation of companies. The notion that territorial dynamics influence entrepreneurial activity seems to be backed up, first of all, by the fact that it is at the regional level that the direct influence of the ecosystem of wealth and of material, human and organizational resources is strengthened through agglomeration effects. We empirically address this question considering the case of French departments in 2011. In order to take into account the role played by the neighbourhood and the resulting spatial dependence, we estimate the sensitivity of both the overall entry rate and the entry rate in the manufacturing industry using spatial econometric estimation techniques, an approach which enables us to control the effect of spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that the creation of companies highly depends on local factors and that the source of local dependence differs according to the entry rate used as an explained variable. Whereas a spatial lag applies at the overall level, the creation of companies in the manufacturing industry is more oriented by exogenous shocks so that a spatial error model is more appropriate.
Mot(s) clé(s)
entrepreneurship, entry rate, spatial dependence, French departments

Dynamique des territoires et création d’entreprises : une analyse des départements français en 2008. Local dynamics and firms creation: an analysis of French departments in 2008.

Denis Carré, Nadine Levratto, Messaoud Zouikri

This paper seeks to determine if and to what extent the territory can be considered as an explanatory factor of the firms’ creation. This possibility is backed up by the fact that the territory is first of all support of infrastructures, resources and organizations. It is also the place where more invisible elements and an entrepreneurial atmosphere take place and also influence new business dynamics. The novelty of the approach lies in the comparison between the explanatory power of these various elements taken separately and the geographical effect resulting from the use of the shift-share analysis. The approach is applied to the creation of new companies in the French departments. It shows that beside the usual factors related to the characteristics of the population and the structures, the intrinsic dynamics of the territory is an explanatory factor of the entrepreneurial performance and that its influence varies according to the activity of the entering companies.
Mot(s) clé(s)
firm creation, French departments, invisible factors, shift-share

Analyse comparée de la productivité des firmes européennes à partir de données comptables: L'effet pays en cause

Denis Carré, Nadine Levratto, Messaoud Zouikri

This paper aims at measuring the productivity gap between firms located in six European countries over the period 1996-2007 and to provide some explanations of the observed differences. Our approach is original for two reasons. Firstly the value added and the productivity are valued from the BACH database that proposes harmonized balance sheets. Secondly, we take into account the influence of environment and institutional factors on the firms' performance thanks to the use of a fixed effects panel data model that allows to assess the unobserved heterogeneity in a sample. This analysis is made at the national level for the whole economy, for three industries (manufacturing industry, construction and services) and for three groups of size (small, medium and large). The results allow to highlight the existence of different productive configurations attested by the different levels of firms' productivity according to size or industry. They also point out a «country effect» that embeds a set of organizational and institutional elements besides production factors.
Mot(s) clé(s)
productivity, BACH database, country effects

Politique Industrielle et PME : Nouvelle Politique et Nouveaux Outils ?

Denis Carré, Nadine Levratto

After having sought to reduce production costs, economic policies dedicated to SMEs tend to promote cooperation and to become more and more systemic. These sorts of policies refer to different underlying models in which firms and technology play different roles. This paper aims at studying the evolution observed in the implementation of SMEs policies. It rests upon a typology built thanks a twofold opposition. One concerns the target of the public action which can be either individual or collective, whereas the second one refers to the impact supposed to be mechanic and structural on one hand or determined by the reaction that takes place within the firm or the group of firms on the other. We examine thirty years of public action referring to this framework what will lead us to insist mainly upon the new systemic policies that promotes spillover, clusters and other poles of competitiveness.
Putting some emphasis on the degree and the nature of the commitment of any individual firm in these networks, we conclude shedding some light on the debated questions surrounding the evaluation of public policies and the best practices to promote.
Mot(s) clé(s)
SME, industrial policy, systemic policy, clusters
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