Photo Lionel Ragot

Lionel Ragot

Professeur(e)
  • Email
  • Tél. professionnel 0140977057
  • Bureau à Paris Nanterre (Bât. + num.) G313F
  • Research group

      Développement Durable, Environnement et Energie

  • Theme(s)
    • Croissance économique
    • Economie de l'environnement
    • Economie des migrations internationales

2018-36 "The fiscal impact of 30 years of immigration in France: an accounting approach"

Xavier Chojnicki, Lionel Ragot, Ndeye Penda Sokhna

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Abstract
This article aims to evaluate the net contribution of immigration to the public finances of France between the late 1970s and the early 2010s. We developed an accounting method that disaggregates the primary deficit into the specific contributions of immigrant population and native population. We show that the net contribution of immigrants is generally negative over a relatively long period, but remains at an extremely low level (+/-0:5% of the french GDP, reduced to +/-0:2%, with the exception of 2011). The relatively negligible effect of immigrants on the public accounts is explained by a favourable demographic structure offsetting their lower net individual contribution. However, the 2008 financial crisis has significantly degraded the economic condition of immigrants. The net per capita contribution of EU immigrants has significantly declined since 2000 and is now similar to values from third country immigrants.
Classification-JEL
E62, F22, H62
Mot(s) clé(s)
International Migration, Public Finances, Social Protection
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2017-45 "Understanding the Impact of Tuition Fees in Foreign Education: the Case of the UK."

Michel Beine, Marco Delogu, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
This paper studies the determinants of international students’ mobility at the university level, focusing specifically on the role of tuition fees. We first develop an original Random Utility Maximization model of location choice for international students in the presence of capacity constraints of the hosting institutions. The last layer of the model gives rise to a gravity equation. This equation is estimated using new data on student migration flows at the university level for the U.K. We control for the endogeneity of tuition fees by taking benefit of the institutional constraints in terms of tuition caps applied in the UK to European students at the bachelor level. The estimations support a negative impact of tuition fees and stress the need to account for the endogenous nature of the fees in the empirical identification of their impact. The estimations also support an important role of additional destination-specific variables such as host capacity, the expected return of education and the cost of living in the vicinity of the university.
Classification-JEL
F22, H52, I23, O15.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Foreign students; Tuition fees; Location choice; University Quality.
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2017-44 "The Role of Fees in Foreign Education: Evidence From Italy."

Michel Beine, Marco Delogu, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
This paper studies the determinants of international students' mobility at the university level, focusing specifically on the role of tuition fees. We derive a gravity model from a Random Utility Maximization model of location choice for international students in the presence of capacity constraints of the hosting institutions. The last layer of the model is estimated using new data on student migration flows at the university level for Italy. We control for the potential endogeneity of tuition fees through a classical IV approach based on the status of the university. We obtain evidence for a clear and negative effect of fees on international student mobility and confirm the positive impact of the quality of the education. The estimations also support the important role of additional destination-specific variables such as host capacity, the expected return of education and the cost of living in the vicinity of the university.
Classification-JEL
F22, H52, I23, O15.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Foreign students; Tuition fees; Location choice; University Quality.
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2015-36 "Preferences and pollution cycles"

Stefano Bosi, David Desmarchelier, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
We consider a competitive Ramsey economy where a pollution externality affects both consumption demand and labor supply, and we assume the stock of pollution to be persistent over time. Surprisingly, when pollution jointly increases the consumption demand (compensation effect) and lowers the labor supply (leisure effect ), multiple equilibria arise near the steady state (local indeterminacy) through a Hopf bifurcation (limit cycle). This result challenges the standard view of pollution as a fow to obtain local indeterminacy, and depends on the leisure effect which renders the pollution accumulation process more volatile.
Classification-JEL
E32, O44.
Mot(s) clé(s)
pollution, endogenous labor supply, limit cycle, Ramsey model.
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2014-34 "Pollution effects on labor supply and growth"

Stefano Bosi, David Desmarchelier, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
Some recent empirical contributions have pointed out a significant negative impact of pollution on labor supply. These impacts have been largely ignored in the theoretical literature, which, instead, focused on the case of pollution effects on consumption demand. In this paper, we study the short and long-run effects of pollution in a Ramsey model where pollution and labor supply are nonseparable arguments in households’ preferences. We determine sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of a longterm equilibrium and we show how large (negative) effects of pollution on labor supply may promotes macroeconomic volatility (deterministic cycles near the steady state) through a flip bifurcation.
Classification-JEL
E32, O44.
Mot(s) clé(s)
pollution, endogenous labor supply, Ramsey model.
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2014-33 "Impacts of Immigration on Aging Welfare-State An Applied General Equilibrium Model for France"

Xavier Chojnicki, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
Immigration is often seen as an instrument of adaptation for aging countries. In this paper, we evaluate, using a dynamic general equilibrium model, the contribution of migration policy in reducing the tax burden associated with the aging population in France. Four variants, compared to a baseline scenario based on oficial projections, are simulated with the aim to quantify the immigration effects on the French social protection finances. The first variant assesses the economic effects of immigration in France as projected into official forecasts. The three other variants are built on the same more ambitious annual flows of immigrants (corresponding to net migration that have characterized the second great wave of immigration in France in the twentieth century). These three variants only distinguish in terms of the skill structure of new migrants. We show that the age and skill structure of immigrants are the key feature that mainly determine the effects on social protection finances. Overall, these effcts are all the more positive in the short-medium term that the migration policy is selective (in favor of more skilled workers). In the long term, beneficial effects of a selective policy may disappear. But the financial gains from more consequent migration flows are relatively moderated in comparison of demographic changes implied.
Classification-JEL
C68, D58, E60, H55, H68, J61.
Mot(s) clé(s)
Migration, AGEM, Overlapping generations, Aging, Public finance, Social protection.
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2013-25 "On the optimal control of pollution in a human capital growth model"

Stefano Bosi, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
On the one hand, the adoption of polluting technologies can enhance the factor productivity; on the other hand, pollution lowers the stock of human capital by weakening physical and mental performances, and short-ening the life expectancy at the end. To capture the impact of pollution on economic growth, we compute the optimal policy in an endogenous growth model `a la Lucas (1988) and we study the effects of pollution in the short and the long run.
Classification-JEL
D90, J24, 044
Mot(s) clé(s)
pollution, human capital, endogenous growth
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2013-26 "The determinants of international mobility of students"

Michel Beine, Romain Noël, Lionel Ragot

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Abstract
This paper analyzes the determinants of the choice of location of international students. Building on the documented trends in international migration of students, we develop a small theoretical model allowing to identify the various factors associated to the attraction of migrants as well as the costs of moving abroad. Using new data capturing the number of students from a large set of origin countries studying in a set of 13 OECD countries, we assess the importance of the various factors identified in the theory. We find support for a significant network effect in the migration of students, a result so far undocumented in the literature. We also find a significant role for cost factors such as housing prices and for attractiveness variables such as the reported quality of universities. In contrast, we do not
find an important role for registration fees.
Classification-JEL
F22, O15
Mot(s) clé(s)
Student mobility, network effect, migration costs, higher education policy
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