Photo Élisabeth Tovar

Élisabeth Tovar

Maître de conférences
  • Email
  • Tél. professionnel 0140977825
  • Bureau à Paris Nanterre (Bât. + num.) G508B
  • Research group

      Développement Durable, Environnement et Energie

  • Theme(s)
    • Economie normative
    • Economie du bien-être
    • Economie urbaine
    • Economie du travail

2019-25 "Profit vs morality: how unfair is labor market discrimination? Results from a survey experiment"

Matthieu Bunel, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
Using an original survey-experimental protocol, we study the normative acceptability of the trade-off between immoral profit (discrimination) and costly morality (non-discrimination). We test the causal influence of three factors: i) the origin of discrimination, ii) the steepness of the morality/profit trade-off and iii) anti-discriminatory moral injunctions. Contrasting with past experimental and attitudinal studies, we find that a significant minority of respondents believe that labor market discrimination is acceptable when morality results in profit loss. We also find that the three tested factors have significant effects on normative opinions. Respondents are more likely to choose profit over morality when discrimination is taste-based than when it is caused by imperfect information. Discrimination’s acceptability rises with the cost of non discrimination. Anti-discriminatory moral injunctions sharply reduces the acceptability of profitable discrimination.
Classification-JEL
J23, J7, J78, C9
Mot(s) clé(s)
discrimination, moral suasion, profit/morality trade-off, vignette survey experiment
File

2017-34 "Obeying vs. resisting unfair laws. A structural analysis of the internalization of collective preferences on redistribution using classification trees and random forests"

Sophie Harnay, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
In this paper, we study whether individual normative preferences are affected by the knowledge of collective normative preferences. In a questionnaire-experimental framework, we study whether respondents obey, resist or are indifferent to a very unfair but legal distribution of an inheritance between a minimum wage-earner and a millionaire. In addition to regressions, we use classification trees and random forests to provide a full picture of how asymmetric combinations of self-interest and ideological factors may lead to identical individual redistributive preferences and law internalization attitudes. We find that sensitivity to procedural fairness and responsibility cut opinions are good predictors of individual redistributive preferences. We also find that law internalization is associated with the support of core normative values, but not with the support of fairness as procedures. This echoes Cooter’s hypothesis of ‘meta preferences’ triggering an expressive vs. backlash effects of laws. Lastly, we find that, among the law-sensitive, the social ‘losers’ tend to submit to the unfair but legal collective preference while the social ‘winners’ tend to either be indifferent of voice their disagreement.
Classification-JEL
C45, C88, D63, H30, K10, Z13.
Mot(s) clé(s)
redistribution, law expressivity, self-interest, ideology, classification trees, random forests.
File

2015-32 "Spatial Mismatch through Local Public Employment Agencies? Answers from a French Quasi-Experiment"

Matthieu Bunel, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
Using the unanticipated creation of a new agency in the French region of Lyon as a quasinatural experiment, we question whether distance to local public employment agencies (LPEAs) is a new channel for spatial mismatch. Contrary to past evidence based on aggregated data and consistent with the spatial mismatch literature, we find no evidence of a worker/agency spatial mismatch, which supports a resizing of the French LPEA network. However, echoing the literature on the institutional determinants of the local public employment agencies’ efficiency, we do find detrimental institutional transitory effects.
Classification-JEL
C218, J58, R53.
Mot(s) clé(s)
spatial mismatch, unemployment, public employment service, quasi-experiment.
File

2012-23 "L’hégémonie retrouvée du centre de la métropole parisienne. L’apport d’une mesure de la ségrégation fonctionnelle des emplois"

Lise Bourdeau-Lepage, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
This article examines the spatial distribution of jobs in the Paris Region. Going beyond the standard analysis often centered on economic sectors, it focuses instead on the functions achieved by the jobs. We rely on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) and segregation indicators. We bring to light the hyper-mono-centric structure of the job distribution in the Paris Region in 2007 and, further, show its asymmetric and segregated nature. These results call for additional work on the link between the spatial differentiation and functional segregation of the jobs, and a city’s wealth, productivity and status in the globalized economy. They also challenge the role that the functional hyper-centrality could play in the competition among global metropolises.
Classification-JEL
R12 R15
Mot(s) clé(s)
Centre; Job Functions; Paris Region; Segregation
File

2012-22 "Local Job Accessibility Measurement: When the Model Makes the Results. Methodological Contribution and Empirical Benchmarking on the Paris Region"

Matthieu Bunel, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
This paper focuses on local job accessibility measurement. We propose an original model that uses national exhaustive micro data and allows for i) a full estimation of job availability according to an extensive set of individual characteristics, ii) a full appraisal of job competition on the labour market and iii) a full control of frontier effects. By matching several exhaustive micro data sources on the Paris region municipalities, we compare the results produced by this benchmark model to a representative set of alternative models, we show that the model may indeed make the results as far as local job accessibility is concerned. Significant empirical differences do stem from the use of different Local Job Accessibility measures. Moreover, these differences are spatially differentiated across the Paris region municipalities. In particular, we show that failing to use a model where job availability is fully estimated according to individual characteristics may lead to the over-estimation of the job accessibility levels of notably under-privileged municipalities.
Classification-JEL
R11, J61
Mot(s) clé(s)
job accessibility measurement; Paris Region; benchmarking; geo-referenced microdata
File

2011-17 "Well-being Disparities Within the Paris Region. A Capabilist Spatialized Outlook"

Lise Bourdeau-Lepage, Élisabeth Tovar

Show Download working paper (on EconPapers)

Abstract
Urban riots, such as in France in 2005, have drawn attention on the spatial determinants of social discontent. We provide evidence on the pervasive collective perception of a dramatic increase of the well-being disparities within the Paris Region during the decade preceding the 2005 riots. We ground our well-being indicator on a spatialized version of Sen's normative capabilist approach, which allows to explicitly take into account the impact of one's localization on one's realizations, opportunities and freedom. Then, using multidimensional poverty indicators and ESDA, we show a global improvement of the Paris region municipalities' Capabilist Spatialized well-being (CaS) between 1999 and 2006 as well as a catching-up phenomenon between advantaged and disadvantaged municipalities. Nevertheless, we also find a growing cluster of very disadvantaged municipalities, some of which have witnessed a decrease of their CaS level. This evidence may explain the belief of a growing socio-spatial fracture within the Paris region.
Classification-JEL
Mot(s) clé(s)
capabilist well-being, socio-spatial disparities, Paris region
File
load Please wait ...